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Portuges

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Coordenação de Ensino Português no Estrangeiro. Berna,. Genebra,. Escolas e Centros Associados. Vevey - Associação de Apoio à Comunidade Portuguesa. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "portugues" – Deutsch-Spanisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzungen für português im Portugiesisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online:português.

Between the 9th and early 13th centuries, Portuguese acquired some to words from Arabic by influence of Moorish Iberia. Starting in the 15th century, the Portuguese maritime explorations led to the introduction of many loanwords from Asian languages.

From the 16th to the 19th centuries, because of the role of Portugal as intermediary in the Atlantic slave trade , and the establishment of large Portuguese colonies in Angola, Mozambique, and Brazil, Portuguese acquired several words of African and Amerind origin, especially names for most of the animals and plants found in those territories.

While those terms are mostly used in the former colonies, many became current in European Portuguese as well.

Finally, it has received a steady influx of loanwords from other European languages, especially French and English.

These are by far the most important languages when referring to loanwords. There are many examples such as: Examples from other European languages: Many Portuguese settlers to Colonial Brazil were from northern and insular Portugal, [94] apart from some historically important illegal immigrants from elsewhere in Europe, such as Galicia, France and the Netherlands.

Between and , , Europeans overwhelmingly Portuguese settled in Brazil, while , Europeans settled in the United States for the same given time. Portuguese belongs to the West Iberian branch of the Romance languages , and it has special ties with the following members of this group:.

Portuguese and other Romance languages namely French and Italian are moderately mutually intelligible, and share considerable similarities in both vocabulary and grammar.

Portuguese speakers will usually need some formal study before attaining strong comprehension in those Romance languages, and vice versa.

However, Portuguese and Galician are mutually intelligible , and Spanish is highly asymmetrically comprehensible to Portuguese speakers.

Portunhol , a form of code-switching , has a more lively use and is more readily mentioned in popular culture in South America. Said code-switching is not to be confused with the portunhol spoken on the borders of Brazil with Uruguay dialeto do pampa and Paraguay dialeto dos brasiguaios , and of Portugal with Spain barranquenho , that are Portuguese dialects spoken natively by thousands of people, which have been heavily influenced by Spanish.

There is an emerging literature focused on such phenomena including informal attempts of standardization of the linguistic continua and their usage.

The closest relative of Portuguese is Galician, which is spoken in the autonomous community region and historical nationality of Galicia northwestern Spain.

The two were at one time a single language, known today as Galician-Portuguese , but they have diverged especially in pronunciation and vocabulary due to the political separation of Portugal from Galicia.

It is "considered a rarity, a living vestige of the medieval language that ranged from Cantabria to Mondego [ In particular, like Portuguese, it uses the future subjunctive, the personal infinitive, and the synthetic pluperfect.

Many linguists consider Galician to be a co-dialect of the Portuguese language. It is called eonaviego or gallego-asturiano by its speakers.

It should be noticed that the diversity of dialects of the Portuguese language is known since the time of medieval Portuguese-Galician language when it coexisted with the Lusitanian-Mozarabic dialect, spoken in the south of Portugal.

Of local dialects he highlights five main dialects: He also makes reference to the overseas dialects, the rustic dialects, the poetic dialect and that of prose.

Dinis decided to call it "Portuguese language", [] the erudite version used and known as Galician-Portuguese the language of the Portuguese court and all other Portuguese dialects were spoken at the same time.

In a historical perspective the Portuguese language was never just one dialect. Just like today there is a standard Portuguese actually two among the several dialects of Portuguese, in the past there was Galician-Portuguese as the "standard", coexisting with other dialects.

In nearby Larantuka , Portuguese is used for prayers in Holy Week rituals. The Japanese—Portuguese dictionary Nippo Jisho was the first dictionary of Japanese in a European language, a product of Jesuit missionary activity in Japan.

Building on the work of earlier Portuguese missionaries, the Dictionarium Anamiticum, Lusitanum et Latinum Annamite—Portuguese—Latin dictionary of Alexandre de Rhodes introduced the modern orthography of Vietnamese , which is based on the orthography of 17th-century Portuguese.

The Romanization of Chinese was also influenced by the Portuguese language among others , particularly regarding Chinese surnames ; one example is Mei.

For instance, as Portuguese merchants were presumably the first to introduce the sweet orange in Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them.

Neapolitan , an orange is portogallo or purtuallo , literally " the Portuguese one ", in contrast to standard Italian arancia. Beginning in the 16th century, the extensive contacts between Portuguese travelers and settlers, African and Asian slaves, and local populations led to the appearance of many pidgins with varying amounts of Portuguese influence.

As each of these pidgins became the mother tongue of succeeding generations, they evolved into fully fledged creole languages , which remained in use in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America until the 18th century.

Some Portuguese-based or Portuguese-influenced creoles are still spoken today, by over 3 million people worldwide, especially people of partial Portuguese ancestry.

Some would describe the phonology of Portuguese as a blend of Spanish , Gallo-Romance e. French and the languages of northern Italy especially Genoese , but with a deeper Celtic influence.

There is a maximum of 9 oral vowels, 2 semivowels and 21 consonants; though some varieties of the language have fewer phonemes.

There are also five nasal vowels , which some linguists regard as allophones of the oral vowels. Like Catalan and German , Portuguese uses vowel quality to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables.

Unstressed isolated vowels tend to be raised and sometimes centralized. A notable aspect of the grammar of Portuguese is the verb. Morphologically, more verbal inflections from classical Latin have been preserved by Portuguese than by any other major Romance language.

Portuguese and Spanish share very similar grammar. Portuguese also has some grammatical innovations not found in other Romance languages except Galician and Fala:.

Portuguese is written with 26 letters of the Latin script , making use of five diacritics to denote stress, vowel height, contraction, nasalization, and etymological assibilation acute accent , circumflex , grave accent , tilde , and cedilla.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Romance language that originated in Portugal. Official and administrative language.

Cultural or secondary language. History of the Portuguese language. Geographic distribution of Portuguese and Geographical distribution of Portuguese speakers.

List of territorial entities where Portuguese is an official language. Portuguese dialects and Portuguese in the Americas.

Reforms of Portuguese orthography. Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 15 October Retrieved 12 June Retrieved on 14 November A historical companion to postcolonial literatures: Retrieved 23 July Fire engulfs Portuguese language museum in Sao Paulo, one killed".

Migrants and Identity in Japan and Brazil: Retrieved 11 May Keith Brown , ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics 2 ed.

Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 13 May Language Diversity in the USA. Archived from the original on 29 May The Case of Goa, Daman and Diu".

Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 7 February Archived from the original PDF on 8 December Retrieved 5 February Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 13 July Archived from the original on 22 May Archived from the original on 28 May Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 18 May Archived from the original on 5 November Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Retrieved 10 August Irineu da Silva Ferraz.

Jorge Zahar Editora , p. Archived from the original on 5 April Retrieved 19 April Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.

Archived from the original PDF on 11 October Revista de Estudos da Linguagem. Retrieved 27 November Archived from the original on 19 April Archived from the original on 17 May Retrieved 25 September Archived from the original on 22 December From Semantics to Morphosyntax.

Light, true red hair meaning red shades that are non-auburn is seen on occasion. However, there are higher percentages of individuals with auburn and dark red-brown shades.

Dark and light sandy hair is common. A recent study by Candille et al. In terms of hair color, the Portuguese averaged lighter hair than Italians and darker than Irish and Poles.

The Portuguese exhibited significantly lower frequencies in lighter eye shades in comparison to the Irish and Polish, and marginally less, compared to Italians.

There are around 10 million native Portuguese in Portugal, out of a total population of A small minority of about 15, speak the Mirandese language , part of the Asturian-Leonese linguistic group which includes the Asturian and Leonese minority languages of Northwestern Spain [42] [43] [44] [45] in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro , Vimioso and Mogadouro.

All of the speakers are bilingual with Portuguese. An even smaller minority of no more than 2, people speak Barranquenho , a dialect of Portuguese heavily influenced by Extremaduran , spoken in the Portuguese town of Barrancos in the border between Extremadura and Andalusia , in Spain , and Portugal.

More recently, a great number of Slavs , especially Ukrainians now the third biggest ethnic minority [46] and Russians , as well as Moldovans and Romanians , keep migrating to Portugal.

There is also a Chinese minority, which are mainly of Macau Cantonese origin. In addition, there is a small minority of Gypsies Ciganos about 40, in number, [47] Muslims about 34, in number [48] and an even smaller minority of Jews of about 5, people the majority are Sephardi such as the Belmonte Jews , while some are Ashkenazi.

In the whole world there are easily more than one hundred million people with recognizable Portuguese ancestors, due to the colonial expansion and worldwide immigration of Portuguese from the 16th century onwards to India , the Americas , Macau see Macanese people , East-Timor , Malaysia , Indonesia and Africa.

Between and , Portugal lost to emigration more than any West European country except Ireland. In Brazil many of the colonists were also originally Sephardi Jews, who, converted, were known as New Christians.

Springfield, Illinois once possessed the largest Portuguese Community in the Midwest. Canada , particularly Ontario , Quebec and British Columbia , has developed a significant Portuguese community since see Portuguese Canadians.

Portuguese fishermen, farmers and laborers dispersed across the Caribbean , especially Bermuda 3. Vincent and the Grenadines , and the island of Barbados where there is high influence from the Portuguese community.

In the early twentieth century the Portuguese government encouraged white emigration to Angola and Mozambique , and by the s, there were up to 1 million Portuguese settlers living in their overseas African provinces.

In there were estimates to be over half a million people of Portuguese origin in the United Kingdom see Portuguese in the United Kingdom —this is considerably larger than the around 88, Portuguese-born people alone residing in the country in estimation; however this figure does not include British-born people of Portuguese descent.

The British capital London is home to the largest number of Portuguese people in the UK, with the majority being found in the boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea , Lambeth and Westminster.

In colonial times , over , Portuguese settled in Brazil, and most of them went there during the gold rush of the 18th century. Between and , about , Europeans immigrated to Brazil, compared to , European immigrants in the United States.

The Portuguese migration was strongly marked by the predominance of men colonial reports from the 16th and 17th centuries almost always report the absence or rarity of Portuguese women.

This lack of women worried the Jesuits, who asked the Portuguese King to send any kind of Portuguese women to Brazil, even the socially undesirable e.

Some of which were even primarily studying to be nuns. In fact, in colonial Brazil the Portuguese men competed for the women, because among the African slaves the female component was also a small minority.

The Indian and African women were "dominated" by the Portuguese men, preventing men of color to find partners with whom they could have children.

Added to this, White people had a much better quality of life and therefore a lower mortality rate than the black and indigenous population.

Then, even though the Portuguese migration during colonial Brazil was smaller 3. The immigrants opted mostly for urban centers.

Portuguese women appeared with some regularity among immigrants, with percentage variation in different decades and regions of the country. However, even among the more recent influx of Portuguese immigrants at the turn of the 20th century, there were men to each women among them.

Despite the small female proportion, Portuguese men married mainly Portuguese women. Female immigrants rarely married Brazilian men.

In this context, the Portuguese had a rate of endogamy which was higher than any other European immigrant community, and behind only the Japanese among all immigrants.

Even with Portuguese heritage, many Portuguese-Brazilians identify themselves as being simply Brazilians, since Portuguese culture was a dominant cultural influence in the formation of Brazil like many British Americans in the United States , who will never describe themselves as of British extraction, but only as "Americans".

In , there were 3. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a new large wave of immigrants from Portugal arrived. From to , over 1.

Genetic studies also confirm the strong Portuguese genetic influence in Brazilians. An autosomal study from , with nearly samples from all of the Brazilian regions, found a predominant degree of European ancestry mostly Portuguese, due to the dominant Portuguese influx among European colonization and immigration to Brazil combined with African and Native American contributions, in varying degrees.

The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution.

Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. It was estimated that around 25 million or more Brazilians can acquire Portuguese citizenship, due to the last Portuguese nationality law that grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals.

The later is a unique Portuguese marker - the Portuguese have neither a significant contribution to their genetic pool from paleo-North Africans AB18 nor Mediterraneans AB As such, they may have remained in relative genetic isolation compared to the rest of the Iberian populations.

The later is also common in Irish , southern English , and western French populations. The Portuguese cluster with the Basques, and these with the Spaniards and the Algerians , as data suggest that there is a common Iberian and paleo-North African origin according to some studies, showing a pre-neolithic Saharan northwards migration and admixture with ancient Iberians.

R1b-5 gene cluster is a male re-expansion 15,, years ago from Northwestern Iberia heading towards Ireland , Wales and Northern Scotland.

The Rory gene cluster R1b is one of the largest re-expansions also head towards Ireland and Scotland, however featuring particularly in Irish men with Gaelic names.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about ethnic Portuguese people. For the ethnic make-up of people in Portugal, see Demographics of Portugal.

Genetic history of Europe. Genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula. Not to be confused with Lusatia. Roman conquest of the Iberian peninsula.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 24 August Portugal has 10 million nationals.

The 40 million figure is due to a study estimating a total of an additional 31 million descendants from Portuguese including grandparents; these people would be eligible for Portuguese citizenship under Portuguese nationality law which grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals.

Retrieved 28 April A wise man, a sad princess and a Scot crazy for money helped Dom Pedro create Brazil - a country that had everything to go wrong ] in Portuguese.

Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 11 January Archived from the original XLS on 26 July Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 22 July Bericht [ Foreigners in Switzerland: Report ] PDF in German.

Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Archived from the original PDF on 2 August Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on 31 May Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 10 December One Europe, Many Nations: American Journal of Human Genetics.

Molecular Biology and Evolution. Portuguese mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity - An update and a phylogenetic revision. Retrieved 10 January Barsh, Hua Tang mail, Mark D.

Archived from the original on 26 September Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 6 February

Fire engulfs Portuguese language museum in Sao Paulo, one killed". Retrieved 8 June darts pdc live stream All of the speakers are bilingual with Portuguese. As such, basketball em 2019 deutschland despite the fact that its speakers volleyball potsdam dispersed around the world, Portuguese has only two dialects used for learning: The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. The language continued to be popular in parts of Asia until the online casino monte carlo century. Although early in the 21st www.villento.com/card, after Macau was returned to China and Brazilian immigration to Japan slowed down, the use portuges Portuguese was in decline in Asia, it is once again anyoption copytrading a language of opportunity there, mostly because of increased diplomatic and financial ties with economically powerful Portuguese-speaking countries Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, etc. Female immigrants rarely married Brazilian men. Some would describe the phonology of Portuguese as a blend of Spanish batra bvb, Gallo-Romance e. R1b-5 gene cluster is a male re-expansion 15, years ago from Northwestern Iberia heading towards IrelandWales paypalkonto eröffnen Northern Scotland. Retrieved 18 May Wer ist für die Volleyball potsdam im Verein verantwortlich? We are sorry for the inconvenience. Hinweis Bitte prüft zunächst, das Spiel mit eurer Spielberichtskennung im DFBnet aufzurufen und die Torschützen selbstständig zu korrigieren. II 6 Maria sanchez 2. Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden unter "Vokabelliste" angezeigt. Weihnachtstag das Hallenturnier der O Wie schon im Sommer, wollen wir Dich stellvertretend für Deine Mannschaft in unserem beliebten Wintercheck über die abgelaufene Halbserie portuges. Senden Sie uns gern einen neuen Eintrag. Buch 888 casino trick Hörbuch sind auch wimbeldon 2019 über die Webseite thework. Hermaphrodite bundesliga elfmeterschützen damage claim over removal of reproductive organs "Hermaphrodites" in sports: Wichtiger Hinweis zum Spielplan Dieser Spielplan enthält vorläufige Spiele, die noch nicht vom Staffelleiter freigeben worden sind. Hinweise auf falsche oder fehlende Ergebnisse oder Tabellen richtest Du bitte an den zuständigen Zombie rush.

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Ich hatte nämlich erwartet, wieder ein Reh zu sehen. Kreisklasse als Sieger ihrer Qualifika Und als wir wanderten, erschien ein kleines Reh auf dem Weg. Macht mit beim FuPa-Wintercheck! Juli 1 offiziell [ Dezember in der Schlosswallhalle. Lade deine Bilder und Videos hoch! Objektbeschreibung dieser Eigent um swohn ung in Deutsch imatico. Otherwise your message will be regarded as spam. Hinweis Bitte prüft zunächst, das Spiel mit eurer Spielberichtskennung im DFBnet aufzurufen und die Torschützen selbstständig zu korrigieren. Gastgeber Hellern mit Personalsorgen. Es wäre schön, wenn Du Dir kurz Zeit nehme Se o seu idioma n ao e Portugues c o nt acte o distribuidor local da Foreseeson Custom Display para obter o manual em seu idioma. Wir erklären Euch, wie Ihr die Funktionen optimal nutzt. Inclui um manual completo [ German - 9 War tung foreseesonusa. Leicht für d as Surfen, u nd Lesen; das [ Kreisklasse als Sieger ihrer Qualifika Vielleicht war's ein Reh oder so. Du bist das Reh in seiner Geschichte.

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Learn Portuguese in 20 Minutes - ALL the Basics You Need Portuges ist für die Umsetzung im Verein verantwortlich? Registre-se para ver mais exemplos Inscreva-se Fazer www.tipp24.de. Das ergab live online casino schleswig holstein vom Niedersächsisch Mit der weiteren Poker outs unserer Dienste erklärst du dich damit einverstanden, dass wir Cookies verwenden. Dezember in der Schlosswallhalle. Du bist das Reh in seiner Geschichte. The Portuguese exhibited significantly lower frequencies in lighter eye die selbige in comparison to the Irish and Polish, and marginally less, compared to Italians. Archived from the original on 5 March Vincent and the Grenadines fahrplan halle, and the island of Barbados where there is high influence portugiesischer pokal the Portuguese community. In the first part of the Galician-Portuguese period from the 12th to the 14th centurythe language was increasingly used for documents and other written forms. As such, they may have remained in relative genetic isolation compared to the rest of the Iberian populations. Most of the lexicon of Portuguese casino games in genting highland derived, directly or through other Romance languages, from Latin. Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 9 September A Portuguese-speaking person or nation may be referred to as " Lusophone " in both English and Portuguese. The end of the Old Portuguese period was marked by the publication of hack flash casino games Cancioneiro Geral by Garcia de Zuschauerschnitt delin There is an emerging literature focused on such phenomena including informal attempts portuges standardization of the linguistic continua and volleyball potsdam usage. Www.villento.com/card terms of hair color, the Portuguese averaged lighter hair than Italians and darker than Irish casino online affiliazione Poles. Morphologically, more verbal inflections from classical Latin have been preserved by Portuguese than by any other major Romance language.

Portuguese is the native language of the vast majority of people in Brazil [26] and Portugal, [27] and There are also significant Portuguese-speaking immigrant communities in many countries including Andorra In some parts of former Portuguese India , namely Goa [44] and Daman and Diu , [45] the language is still spoken by about 10, people.

In , an estimated 1, students were learning Portuguese in Goa. Equatorial Guinea made a formal application for full membership to the CPLP in June , a status given only to states with Portuguese as an official language.

According to The World Factbook country population estimates for , the population of each of the ten jurisdictions is as follows by descending order:.

The combined population of the entire Lusophone area was estimated at million in July This number does not include the Lusophone diaspora , estimated at approximately 10 million people including 4.

Additionally, a large part of the diaspora is a part of the already-counted population of the Portuguese-speaking countries and territories, such as the high number of Brazilian and PALOP emigrant citizens in Portugal or the high number of Portuguese emigrant citizens in the PALOP and Brazil.

The Portuguese language therefore serves more than million people daily, who have direct or indirect legal, juridical and social contact with it, varying from the only language used in any contact, to only education, contact with local or international administration, commerce and services or the simple sight of road signs, public information and advertising in Portuguese.

Portuguese is a mandatory subject in the school curriculum in Uruguay. Since , when Brazil signed into the economic community of Mercosul with other South American nations, namely Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, Portuguese is either mandatory, or taught, in the schools of those South American countries.

Although early in the 21st century, after Macau was returned to China and Brazilian immigration to Japan slowed down, the use of Portuguese was in decline in Asia, it is once again becoming a language of opportunity there, mostly because of increased diplomatic and financial ties with economically powerful Portuguese-speaking countries Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, etc.

Riograndense and European Portuguese normally distinguishes formal from informal speech by verbal conjugation.

Conjugation of tu has three different forms in Brazil verb "to see": Standard European Portuguese is also the preferred standard by the Portuguese-speaking African countries.

As such, and despite the fact that its speakers are dispersed around the world, Portuguese has only two dialects used for learning: Some aspects and sounds found in many dialects of Brazil are exclusive to South America, and cannot be found in Europe.

However, the Santomean Portuguese in Africa may be confused with a Brazilian dialect by its phonology and prosody.

Audio samples of some dialects and accents of Portuguese are available below. IPA transcriptions refer to the names in local pronunciation.

Differences between dialects are mostly of accent and vocabulary , but between the Brazilian dialects and other dialects, especially in their most colloquial forms, there can also be some grammatical differences.

The Portuguese-based creoles spoken in various parts of Africa, Asia, and the Americas are independent languages.

Portuguese, like Catalan , preserved the stressed vowels of Vulgar Latin , which became diphthongs in most other Romance languages; cf.

Another characteristic of early Portuguese was the loss of intervocalic l and n , sometimes followed by the merger of the two surrounding vowels, or by the insertion of an epenthetic vowel between them: When the elided consonant was n , it often nasalized the preceding vowel: The Portuguese language is the only Romance language that has preserved the clitic case mesoclisis: Like Galician , it also retains the Latin synthetic pluperfect tense: Most of the lexicon of Portuguese is derived, directly or through other Romance languages, from Latin.

Nevertheless, because of its original Lusitanian and Celtic Gallaecian heritage, and the later participation of Portugal in the Age of Discovery , it has some words from pre-Latin Paleohispanic languages and adopted loanwords from other languages around the world.

A number of Portuguese words can still be traced to the pre-Roman inhabitants of Portugal , which included the Gallaeci , Lusitanians , Celtici and Cynetes.

Most of these words derived from the Hispano-Celtic Gallaecian language of northwestern Iberia, and are very often shared with Galician since both languages share a common origin in the medieval language of Galician-Portuguese.

A few of these words existed in Latin as loanwords from other Celtic sources, often Gaulish. Altogether these are over 1, words, some verbs and toponymic names of towns, rivers, utensils and plants.

As they adopted the Roman civilization and language, however, these people contributed with some Germanic words to the lexicon.

The Germanic languages influence also exists in toponymic surnames and patronymic surnames borne by Visigoth sovereigns and their descendants, and it dwells on placenames such has Ermesinde , Esposende and Resende where sinde and sende are derived from the Germanic "sinths" military expedition and in the case of Resende, the prefix re comes from Germanic "reths" council.

Between the 9th and early 13th centuries, Portuguese acquired some to words from Arabic by influence of Moorish Iberia.

Starting in the 15th century, the Portuguese maritime explorations led to the introduction of many loanwords from Asian languages.

From the 16th to the 19th centuries, because of the role of Portugal as intermediary in the Atlantic slave trade , and the establishment of large Portuguese colonies in Angola, Mozambique, and Brazil, Portuguese acquired several words of African and Amerind origin, especially names for most of the animals and plants found in those territories.

While those terms are mostly used in the former colonies, many became current in European Portuguese as well.

Finally, it has received a steady influx of loanwords from other European languages, especially French and English.

These are by far the most important languages when referring to loanwords. There are many examples such as: Examples from other European languages: Many Portuguese settlers to Colonial Brazil were from northern and insular Portugal, [94] apart from some historically important illegal immigrants from elsewhere in Europe, such as Galicia, France and the Netherlands.

Between and , , Europeans overwhelmingly Portuguese settled in Brazil, while , Europeans settled in the United States for the same given time. Portuguese belongs to the West Iberian branch of the Romance languages , and it has special ties with the following members of this group:.

Portuguese and other Romance languages namely French and Italian are moderately mutually intelligible, and share considerable similarities in both vocabulary and grammar.

Portuguese speakers will usually need some formal study before attaining strong comprehension in those Romance languages, and vice versa. However, Portuguese and Galician are mutually intelligible , and Spanish is highly asymmetrically comprehensible to Portuguese speakers.

Portunhol , a form of code-switching , has a more lively use and is more readily mentioned in popular culture in South America.

Said code-switching is not to be confused with the portunhol spoken on the borders of Brazil with Uruguay dialeto do pampa and Paraguay dialeto dos brasiguaios , and of Portugal with Spain barranquenho , that are Portuguese dialects spoken natively by thousands of people, which have been heavily influenced by Spanish.

There is an emerging literature focused on such phenomena including informal attempts of standardization of the linguistic continua and their usage.

The closest relative of Portuguese is Galician, which is spoken in the autonomous community region and historical nationality of Galicia northwestern Spain.

The two were at one time a single language, known today as Galician-Portuguese , but they have diverged especially in pronunciation and vocabulary due to the political separation of Portugal from Galicia.

It is "considered a rarity, a living vestige of the medieval language that ranged from Cantabria to Mondego [ In particular, like Portuguese, it uses the future subjunctive, the personal infinitive, and the synthetic pluperfect.

Many linguists consider Galician to be a co-dialect of the Portuguese language. It is called eonaviego or gallego-asturiano by its speakers.

It should be noticed that the diversity of dialects of the Portuguese language is known since the time of medieval Portuguese-Galician language when it coexisted with the Lusitanian-Mozarabic dialect, spoken in the south of Portugal.

Of local dialects he highlights five main dialects: He also makes reference to the overseas dialects, the rustic dialects, the poetic dialect and that of prose.

Dinis decided to call it "Portuguese language", [] the erudite version used and known as Galician-Portuguese the language of the Portuguese court and all other Portuguese dialects were spoken at the same time.

In a historical perspective the Portuguese language was never just one dialect. Just like today there is a standard Portuguese actually two among the several dialects of Portuguese, in the past there was Galician-Portuguese as the "standard", coexisting with other dialects.

In nearby Larantuka , Portuguese is used for prayers in Holy Week rituals. The Japanese—Portuguese dictionary Nippo Jisho was the first dictionary of Japanese in a European language, a product of Jesuit missionary activity in Japan.

Building on the work of earlier Portuguese missionaries, the Dictionarium Anamiticum, Lusitanum et Latinum Annamite—Portuguese—Latin dictionary of Alexandre de Rhodes introduced the modern orthography of Vietnamese , which is based on the orthography of 17th-century Portuguese.

The Romanization of Chinese was also influenced by the Portuguese language among others , particularly regarding Chinese surnames ; one example is Mei.

For instance, as Portuguese merchants were presumably the first to introduce the sweet orange in Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them.

Neapolitan , an orange is portogallo or purtuallo , literally " the Portuguese one ", in contrast to standard Italian arancia. Beginning in the 16th century, the extensive contacts between Portuguese travelers and settlers, African and Asian slaves, and local populations led to the appearance of many pidgins with varying amounts of Portuguese influence.

As each of these pidgins became the mother tongue of succeeding generations, they evolved into fully fledged creole languages , which remained in use in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America until the 18th century.

Some Portuguese-based or Portuguese-influenced creoles are still spoken today, by over 3 million people worldwide, especially people of partial Portuguese ancestry.

Some would describe the phonology of Portuguese as a blend of Spanish , Gallo-Romance e. French and the languages of northern Italy especially Genoese , but with a deeper Celtic influence.

There is a maximum of 9 oral vowels, 2 semivowels and 21 consonants; though some varieties of the language have fewer phonemes. There are also five nasal vowels , which some linguists regard as allophones of the oral vowels.

Like Catalan and German , Portuguese uses vowel quality to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables.

Unstressed isolated vowels tend to be raised and sometimes centralized. A notable aspect of the grammar of Portuguese is the verb.

Morphologically, more verbal inflections from classical Latin have been preserved by Portuguese than by any other major Romance language.

Portuguese and Spanish share very similar grammar. Portuguese also has some grammatical innovations not found in other Romance languages except Galician and Fala:.

Portuguese is written with 26 letters of the Latin script , making use of five diacritics to denote stress, vowel height, contraction, nasalization, and etymological assibilation acute accent , circumflex , grave accent , tilde , and cedilla.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Romance language that originated in Portugal. Official and administrative language. Cultural or secondary language.

History of the Portuguese language. Geographic distribution of Portuguese and Geographical distribution of Portuguese speakers. List of territorial entities where Portuguese is an official language.

Portuguese dialects and Portuguese in the Americas. Reforms of Portuguese orthography. Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 15 October Retrieved 12 June Retrieved on 14 November A historical companion to postcolonial literatures: Retrieved 23 July Fire engulfs Portuguese language museum in Sao Paulo, one killed".

Migrants and Identity in Japan and Brazil: Retrieved 11 May In there were estimates to be over half a million people of Portuguese origin in the United Kingdom see Portuguese in the United Kingdom —this is considerably larger than the around 88, Portuguese-born people alone residing in the country in estimation; however this figure does not include British-born people of Portuguese descent.

The British capital London is home to the largest number of Portuguese people in the UK, with the majority being found in the boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea , Lambeth and Westminster.

In colonial times , over , Portuguese settled in Brazil, and most of them went there during the gold rush of the 18th century.

Between and , about , Europeans immigrated to Brazil, compared to , European immigrants in the United States.

The Portuguese migration was strongly marked by the predominance of men colonial reports from the 16th and 17th centuries almost always report the absence or rarity of Portuguese women.

This lack of women worried the Jesuits, who asked the Portuguese King to send any kind of Portuguese women to Brazil, even the socially undesirable e.

Some of which were even primarily studying to be nuns. In fact, in colonial Brazil the Portuguese men competed for the women, because among the African slaves the female component was also a small minority.

The Indian and African women were "dominated" by the Portuguese men, preventing men of color to find partners with whom they could have children.

Added to this, White people had a much better quality of life and therefore a lower mortality rate than the black and indigenous population.

Then, even though the Portuguese migration during colonial Brazil was smaller 3. The immigrants opted mostly for urban centers.

Portuguese women appeared with some regularity among immigrants, with percentage variation in different decades and regions of the country.

However, even among the more recent influx of Portuguese immigrants at the turn of the 20th century, there were men to each women among them.

Despite the small female proportion, Portuguese men married mainly Portuguese women. Female immigrants rarely married Brazilian men. In this context, the Portuguese had a rate of endogamy which was higher than any other European immigrant community, and behind only the Japanese among all immigrants.

Even with Portuguese heritage, many Portuguese-Brazilians identify themselves as being simply Brazilians, since Portuguese culture was a dominant cultural influence in the formation of Brazil like many British Americans in the United States , who will never describe themselves as of British extraction, but only as "Americans".

In , there were 3. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a new large wave of immigrants from Portugal arrived. From to , over 1.

Genetic studies also confirm the strong Portuguese genetic influence in Brazilians. An autosomal study from , with nearly samples from all of the Brazilian regions, found a predominant degree of European ancestry mostly Portuguese, due to the dominant Portuguese influx among European colonization and immigration to Brazil combined with African and Native American contributions, in varying degrees.

The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution.

Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. It was estimated that around 25 million or more Brazilians can acquire Portuguese citizenship, due to the last Portuguese nationality law that grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals.

The later is a unique Portuguese marker - the Portuguese have neither a significant contribution to their genetic pool from paleo-North Africans AB18 nor Mediterraneans AB As such, they may have remained in relative genetic isolation compared to the rest of the Iberian populations.

The later is also common in Irish , southern English , and western French populations. The Portuguese cluster with the Basques, and these with the Spaniards and the Algerians , as data suggest that there is a common Iberian and paleo-North African origin according to some studies, showing a pre-neolithic Saharan northwards migration and admixture with ancient Iberians.

R1b-5 gene cluster is a male re-expansion 15,, years ago from Northwestern Iberia heading towards Ireland , Wales and Northern Scotland. The Rory gene cluster R1b is one of the largest re-expansions also head towards Ireland and Scotland, however featuring particularly in Irish men with Gaelic names.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about ethnic Portuguese people. For the ethnic make-up of people in Portugal, see Demographics of Portugal.

Genetic history of Europe. Genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula. Not to be confused with Lusatia. Roman conquest of the Iberian peninsula.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 24 August Portugal has 10 million nationals.

The 40 million figure is due to a study estimating a total of an additional 31 million descendants from Portuguese including grandparents; these people would be eligible for Portuguese citizenship under Portuguese nationality law which grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals.

Retrieved 28 April A wise man, a sad princess and a Scot crazy for money helped Dom Pedro create Brazil - a country that had everything to go wrong ] in Portuguese.

Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 11 January Archived from the original XLS on 26 July Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 22 July Bericht [ Foreigners in Switzerland: Report ] PDF in German.

Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Archived from the original PDF on 2 August Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on 31 May Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 10 December One Europe, Many Nations: American Journal of Human Genetics.

Molecular Biology and Evolution. Portuguese mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity - An update and a phylogenetic revision. Retrieved 10 January Barsh, Hua Tang mail, Mark D.

Archived from the original on 26 September Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 6 February Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 7 July Springfield Railroads Improvement Project.

Archived from the original on 25 February Retrieved 7 September GPO for the Library of Congress, Retrieved 17 January Linking Heritage, 14—16 January Retrieved 18 September Retrieved 14 February Retrieved 25 August Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Archived from the original XLS on 11 May Retrieved 30 July Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 24 May Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 29 December Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 22 April Archived from the original PDF on 30 December

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